The links on this page are provided to stimulate thought and discussion free of the agenda of 'inevitablism' set by the republicans to try and control debate in Australia.
Links to other websites are grouped into five categories:
ICAN does not subscribe to any particular views expressed in these sites, which are provided for information and discussion.
- links to websites of monarchist and anti-monarchist groups in Australia,
- links to websites that explore the diverse philosophies and ideas of monarchism around the world,
- links to exile and restoration websites,
- links to the websites of reigning royal houses and their vice-regal representatives, and
- links to websites of royal genealogies and family histories.
Each link is annotated, and comments of visitors to those sites will be included as they come to hand - if you wish to add your own comments, you can email our Co-ordinator here.
Suggestions for other links, notice of broken or otherwise failed links, or any other thoughts on the links or on this links page, can also be sent to the Web Team here.
Australian Monarchist and anti-Monarchist sites
These websites are operated by the various organisations that participate in Australian constitutional debates, especially issues about the roles, functions and symbolism of the head of state.
Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (ACM)
This is the site of the main imperial monarchist organisation in Australia, the ACM, which lead the case for a 'No' vote in the 1999 referendum.
Australian Monarchist League
This is the site of the other mainstream imperial monarchists, who maintain that the Queen is the Sovereign while the Governor-General is the Head of State. The site consists of a single page, with a postal address.
Our Australian Crown
It is not clear who established this site in 1999, but it has not been updated since. It contains several useful links, including to the Australia Acts 1986 and the Royal Style & Titles Act 1973.
Australian Republican Movement (ARM)
This is the site of the main nationalist anti-monarchist organisation in Australia, the ARM, which lead the case for a 'Yes' vote in the 1999 referendum.
For a Just Republic
This is the site of an organisation with the principal goals of replacing the Queen with a directly-elected president, and including in the constitution a Bill of Rights and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples as the original custodians of Australia.
Australian Republican Party
This is the site of an organisation whose main aims seem to be replacing the Queen with a 'Maximalist Presidium' and the abolition of the states - the ARP seem to also be known as the Community Republicans.
Senate Republic Inquiry
This is the site of the Commonwealth Senate's "Road to a Republic" report produced in 2004, and demonstrates the influence of the inevitabilst gatekeepers on constitutional debates in Australia: the Terms of Reference for the inquiry make no reference to the monarchy at all and instead focus exclusively on methods to overcome or undermine the result of the 1999 referendum, illustrating the inevitablist platform: a republic is inevitable, so surrender to it now. The report was prepared with public funding, and presumably sets out some sort of public program or platform to guide anti-monarchists in their quest.
There does not appear to be any similar Senate inquiry, proposed or underway, into consolidating the position of the Australian Crown; or completing the patriation of the Australian Crown; or developing models for the functioning of the modern Crown in Australia; or the succession to the Australian Crown; or the evolving relationships between the Crown and the three branches of governance (executive, legislative, judicial) or the spheres of governance within the federation (Commonwealth, State, Territory, Local); or the potential role of the Australian Crown (as successor to the British Crown in Australia) in redefining relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.
Monarchist Philosophies and Debates
These websites explore and discuss the diverse philosophies and concepts in monarchist thinking around the world. There is no one accepted or correct way to understand monarchism, as we are sometimes lead to believe in Australia.
Two Kinds of Monarchists
The author of this site identifies three main streams of thought in contemporary monarchism: neomonarchism, paleomonarchism and anglomonarchism.
The author of this site identified himself as a 'Forseyite monarchist', and argues that anti-monarchists are still arguing for the abolition of 18th and 19th century monarchies that no longer exist: the evolution of the British Crown during the 20th century, especially in the Commonwealth realms such as Australia, has created a situation in which the real struggle in our representative democracy is between elected politicians and the people, and it's a struggle in which the remaining residual powers of the Crown are of enormous value in protecting the people and their interests, when properly invoked. How and when these powers should be invoked is the crucial question confronting our modern democracy.
The Royal Road to Prosperity, Democracy and World Peace
An article published in the American Political Science Association Online (APSANET) in December 1998 analysing the results of a study of the differences between countries with monarchic or republican forms - the tone is a little patronising towards Australia, but the general points being made are of interest.
Otto of Hapsburg on the future of monarchy
An early 20th century view which refers to the historically recent nature of royal primogeniture (the right of succession belonging to the firstborn child, especially the eldest son), and the importance of constitutional mechanisms (such as election) to control the succession:
The future form of the State will be something entirely new, something which will represent principles of eternal validity in a form appropriate to the future, without the errors of the past...The hereditary character of the monarchial function finds its deepest justification lies in the fact that the hereditary ruler owes his position not to one or another social group, ...While there is thus much to be said for a hereditary transmission of the supreme position of the State, there is also one serious drawback, if the succession occurs automatically, there is the possibility that the throne will be occupied by an incompetent ... this danger only dates from the period when the inflexible legitimism of Versailles came into being, and the safeguards present in one form or another in most classical monarchies disappeared. Such safeguards would therefore have to be built into any future monarchical constitution. It would be wrong to hand this task over to political bodies, as that would open the door to private interests.
Exile and Restoration sites
These websites are dedicated to exiled monarchs and royal houses and/or to the restoration of exiles or other claimants to vacant thrones.
Pró Monarquia Brasil
The official site of the Brazilian Imperial House of Orleans e Bragança (Casa Imperial do Brasil), with full contact details, links to campaigns and projects for the restoration of the monarchy that was abolished in a military coup in 1889, and other materials used by Pró Monarquia [in Portugese only].
House of Hohenzollern
The official website of the House of Hohenzollern, which aims to provide information on the family whose history is closely connected with the history of the state of Prussia, and who still bears its name. [in English and German].
Greek Royal Family
The official site of Greek Royal House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksbürg, established to mark the creation of the Anna Maria Foundation to pursue welfare projects, assist natural disaster victims, and '...promote the universality of Hellenism' with monies recently awarded to the Royal Family by the European Court of Human Rights as compensation for the confiscation of their property in 1994. The Q&A Section is mainly about the ECHR cases [in Greek and English versions].
Greek Royalist Association of Australia 'King Constantine'
This website was under construction as at 7 June 2004, but contains postal and email addresses for further details [in English].
Hawaiian Kingdom Government
The official site of the Hawaiian Kingdom Government 'presently operating within the occupied State of the Hawaiian Islands'. Includes an illustrated list of all Hawaiian sovereigns, and information on current campaigns, including the complaint filed with the United Nations in 2001 regarding the American occupation of the islands. The site is maintained by the Hawaiian Council of Regency, and includes contact details [in English].
The website of Reza Pahlavi, son of the last Shah of Iran and claimant to the Iranian throne [in English and Farsi].
Iraqi Constitutional Monarchy Movement (CMM)
This is the site of the principal Hashemite claimant of the Iraqi throne, Sharif Ali bin Al Hussein, who in 2003 was the first member of the Iraqi Royal Family to return to Iraq since the violent coup d'état in 1958 [in Arabic and English].
This is the site of the main Italian monarchist organisation, the 'political arm of Italian monarchists' dedicated to the restoration of the Italian Royal House of Savoy (Real Casa di Savoia), with the Alliance's charter and other documents, notices of coming events, links to its regional and local branches, and a link to their journal 'Italia Reale' [in Italian only].
comments: AM has recently been successful in its long campaign to repeal the constitutional probibition on male members of the House of Savoy returning to Italy, and is now campaigning for the repeal of Article 139 of the Italian constitution that prevents the restoration of the monarchy by constitutional processes - BlueCedar 6/7/04
This site is dedicated to considering the alternative to the present Italian republic of a return of the monarchy, and features a discussion forum for visitors [in Italian only].
S.M. Re Umberto II
This site is dedicated to Umberto II, the last King of Italy, who went into exile in 1946 after after a referendum on the 'institutional shape' of post-war Italy was narrowly decided by the courts to favour a republic. The referendum outcome remains contested, and this site devotes several pages to the campaign and its result, and also includes many photos and copies of the King's speeches [in Italian only].
The Ottoman Website
This site commemorates the 700th anniversary of the Ottoman Empire founded in 1299 [in English and Turkish].
Notes on Polish Royal Succession
This site explores the issues associated with the elective monarchy of Poland up to 1795 when the country was occupied and the crown assumed by German and later Russian monarchs, and with the various claimants to the Polish throne today [in English].
Casa Real Portuguesa
The official website of the Portugese Royal House [in Portugese only].
The purpose of the website is "...to explain how everything which is just and righteous demands that the Vietnamese Empire be restored and hopefully help others to recognize that it has always been and always shall be only the Nguyen dynasty which can save Vietnam from their current socialist oppressors and give the nation the freedom and prosperity that they so richly deserve" [in English, with Vietnamese version available].
Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League
The website of the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League, which has a goal of restoring the Vietnamese Imperial House of Nguyen that was summarily abolished in communist Vietnam in 1945 and exiled to France, and following a highly contested referendum in southern Vietnam in 1955. The League is based in the USA, and works with similar groups in Cambodia, Laos and Burma [in English, with Vietnamese version available].
Srpske i jugoslovenske Monarhije
The official website of the Serbian and Yugoslav Royal House of Karadjordjevic, with information about the family, its history, its cultural and constitutional roles, and public debates about restoring the monarchy, with good Q&A page [in Serbian with Cyrillic and Latin versions, and English].
Directories of other sites
This Directory contains links to many official royal and exile sites, and includes most Commonwealth vice-regal sites.
PWHCE - Monarchy Links
This Directory contains links to an ecclectic group of official royal websites and sites of restorationists and supporters, as well as sites exploring monarchist philosophies and ideas. It has good coverage of Australian monarchist websites.
These websites are dedicated to reigning houses, and generally are the official websites of those houses, although some un-official sites are also included. Vice-regal websites (for representatives of a reigning house), such as that of the Australian Governor-General, are also included here.
The British Monarchy
This is the official website of the British monarchy, and provides information from the UK and the Commonwealth on the work of The Queen in modern society, biographies of the Royal Family, a history of kings and queens through the ages, background on Royal residences and art collections, and coverage of recent Royal events.
The Prince of Wales
This is the official website of the Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and heir to the Australian Crown. It contains information about the Prince, his charity work, official duties and a diary of his engagements; as well as information concerning the Duchess of Cornwall, and the Princes William and Harry.
Governor-General of Australia
This is the site of the Governor-General of Australia, with information about the role of the Office, the Australian Honours System, Vice-regal speeches, the official residences, and a list of the 23 governors-general since 1901.
Governor-General of Canada
This is the site of the Governor-General of Canada, with information about the role of the Office, the Canadian Honours System, the official residences, and the Canadian heraldic system, the first patriation of heraldic authority from the British Crown to one of its daughter-crowns.
Governor-General of New Zealand
This is the site of the Governor-General of New Zealand (Te Kawana Tianara o Aotearoa), with information about the role of the Office, the New Zealand Honours System, the official residences, a biography of the present Governor General, and related cultural and heritage links.
The Thai Monarchy
This is the official website of the Thai royal household, in English and Thai, with information on the Thai throne, the kings of Thailand, the Royal Family, the Royal palaces, the Royal regalia, and projects by members of the Royal Family.
Cambodia (an elective monarchy)
The King of Cambodia
This is the official website of the Cambodian King, in English, with information on the former king, the Royal Family and a photo gallery of the King and Royal Family.
Malaysia (an elective monarchy)
The Malaysian Monarchy
This is the official website of the Malaysian monarchy, in English and Bahasa Melayu, with information on the elective monarchy system, the status and powers of the Kings, the present King, the Royal regalia, the Royal palaces, the national honours system, and the constitutional positions of the King.
The Imperial Household Agency
This is the official website of the Japanese Imperial Household Agency, in English and Japanese, with information on the imperial system, the status and powers of the Emperor, the official duties and functions of the Imperial Family, biographies of the Imperial family, traditional cultural functions of the Imperial Court, and media releeases and speeches by members of the Imperial Family.
The Danish Monarchy
This is the official website of the Danish Royal House, in English and Danish, with information on the royal family, its current activities, the royal palaces and their collections, a history of the royal house and current organisation.
The Dutch Royal House
This is the official website of the Dutch Royal House, in English and Dutch, French and German, with information on the royal family, its current activities, the royal palaces and their collections, and a photo archive.
Spain (restored monarchy)
The Spanish Royal Family
This is the official website of the Spanish Royal House, in English and Spanish, with information on the royal family, its current activities, the royal palaces, the Spanish Crown, and the charity foundations of the Royal Family.
Norway (monarchy installed by popular referendum)
The Norwegian Royal House
This is the official website of the Norwegian Royal House, in English and Norwegian, with information on the Norwegian monarchy, the royal family, the royal palaces, and the activities of members of the Royal Family.
Belgium (monarchy installed by parliament)
The Belgian Monarchy
This is the official website of the Belgian Royal House, in English and Dutch, French and German, with information on the Belgian monarchy, the royal family, the royal palaces, and the activities of members of the Royal Family.
The Swedish Royal Court
This is the official website of the Swedish Royal Court, in English and Swedish, with information on the Swedish monarchy, the royal family, the royal palaces, and the activities of members of the Royal Family.
Dynastic and Genealogical sites
These websites are dedicated to the study and recording of royal and dynastic genealogies and family histories. They are prepared by a variety of people and organisations.
Directory of Royal Genealogical Data
This is a database site containing the genealogy of the British Royal family and those linked to it via blood or marriage relationships. The author Brian C Thompsett states that ...it contains, in fact, the genealogy of almost every ruling house in the western world because of the intermarriage that took place between them at some time or another. There are in excess of 30,000 individuals....
Queen Victoria's Descendants
This link is to a page of genealogical information charting all of the descendants of Queen Victoria, and is part of a larger website maintained by Allan Raymond on the monarchies of Europe (to which there are clear links).
This websites contain genealogical tables and information on many royal houses in Asia, including South East Asia, the Pacific Island countries, the Arab nations, and Africa.